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卫生部:消除麻疹控制乙肝 你我共参与

更新时间:2010年04月22日15:10:18    作者:战胜乙肝网    文章来源:卫生部
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手机版地址:卫生部:消除麻疹控制乙肝 你我共参与

    卫生部、世界卫生组织于2010年4月22日上午10:00在卫生部(西直门外南路1号)五楼新闻发布厅召开主题为“消除麻疹 控制乙肝 你我共参与”的联合新闻发布会,以下为发布会有关乙肝的材料。

乙型肝炎 
      卫生部 世界卫生组织 联合新闻发布会背景材料之四

关键信息

•  乙型肝炎是一种病毒性传染病,引起肝脏损害,造成急性和慢性疾病。
•  病毒的是通过接触受感染的血液或其他体液而传染,而不是日常接触。
•  儿童早期感染后,约25%在成年时会发展成为慢性感染,并最终死于肝癌或肝硬化。
•  乙型肝炎病毒对卫生工作者是一个重要的职业危害。
•  乙型肝炎可以通过安全、有效的疫苗来预防。

现况

•  中国估计有9300万人已经感染了乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)。

治疗

• 对急性乙型肝炎没有特定的治疗。护理的目的是保持身体舒适和适当的营养平衡,包括对有呕吐和腹泻症状的患者补充水份。
• 慢性乙型肝炎可使用药物治疗,包括使用干扰素和抗病毒药物,这可以帮助一些病人。治疗花费一年近万元,不是每个病人发病后都能够负担。
• 肝硬化患者有时要接受肝移植,不是都能够成功。
• 肝癌几乎总是致命的,而且往往是在人们最具生产力以及承担着家庭责任的年龄发生。

 预防

• 所有婴儿应接受乙型肝炎疫苗:这是预防乙型肝炎的根本。
• 根据现有的常规免疫程序,乙肝疫苗需要接种三次。在中国第一剂的疫苗应在出生后尽早接种(即出生后24小时内)。
• 完成规定的疫苗接种后,95%以上的婴儿、儿童、轻壮年都可产生保护性抗体。保护期至少持续20年,甚至是终生。
• 所有年龄低于18岁的儿童和青少年,以前未接种疫苗都应接种疫苗。2009-2011年中国政府将为所有15岁以下、既往未接种疫苗的儿童和青少年提供免费接种。
• 该疫苗在有效性和安全性方面具有非常好的记录。自1982年以来,超过10亿剂乙肝疫苗,已经在全世界使用。在中国疫苗接种已将5岁以下儿童慢性感染的比例减少到1%以下。

Hepatitis B

Key facts

·Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver, causing both acute and chronic disease.

·The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person - not through casual contact.

·About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood later die from liver cancer or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) caused by the chronic infection.

·Hepatitis B virus is an important occupational hazard for health workers.

·Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine.

Frequency

·In China, an estimated 93 million people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Treatment

·There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhea.

·Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with drugs, including interferon and anti-viral agents, which can help some patients. Treatment can cost dozens of thousands of RMB per year and is not affordable to everyone.

·Patients with cirrhosis are sometimes given liver transplants, with varying success.

·Liver cancer is almost always fatal, and often develops in people at an age when they are most productive and have family responsibilities.

Prevention

·All infants should receive the hepatitis B vaccine: this is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention.

·The vaccine is given in three separate doses, as part of existing routine immunization schedules. In China, the first dose of vaccine should be given as soon as possible after birth (i.e. within 24 hours).

·The complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in more than 95% of infants, children and young adults. Protection lasts at least 20 years and should be lifelong.

·All children and adolescents younger than 18 years old and not previously vaccinated should receive the vaccine. In China, from 2009 to 2011, the Government will provide the vaccine free of charge for all children under 15 years of age who have not yet been vaccinated.

·The vaccine has an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Since 1982, over one billion doses of hepatitis B vaccine have been used worldwide. In China, vaccination has reduced the rate of chronic infection to less than 1% among immunized children under 5 years age.

消除麻疹 控制乙肝 你我共参与

      卫生部 世界卫生组织 联合新闻发布会发布词之二 

    大家早上好。

    自从1980年成功根除天花后,世卫组织就在世界许多国家支持其发展免疫服务。30年后,大范围接种疫苗工作,使得全球数百万人免于死于多种疾病。麻疹和乙肝就是两个重要的成功案例。由于这两种疾病造成很多人发病和死亡,并且可以通过免疫接种来预防,因此,它们也是世卫组织西太平洋区域的免疫工作重点。

    疫苗让全球的麻疹状况发生了改变。人们有时可能以为,麻疹是一种相对较轻的疾病;但世卫组织估计,2000年,麻疹造成全球73.3万人死亡。此后,国际活动推动了疫苗的大规模应用,包括各种接种活动。因此,到2008年,全球因麻疹死亡人数减少到16.4万(减少了78%)。现在,世界所有区域都树立了消除麻疹的目标。

    中国坚定地致力于消除麻疹工作。2010年的全国性接种活动将帮助中国阻断麻疹的传播。这次接种活动将是世界上最大规模的一次接种活动,将有约1亿儿童接受免疫。开展这次活动的决定是与世卫组织磋商、并借鉴了其他国家的成功经验后做出的。

    乙肝是儿童幼时感染的一种疾病。它让肝脏慢慢受到损害,导致严重疾病,并可能在成年时造成死亡。乙肝在中国一直是重要的公共卫生问题之一。政府从1992年开始,对全国儿童进行大规模免疫接种,使得该病在较小的孩子中几乎完全消失。这些儿童将健康成长,不会再罹患或死于乙肝。

    中国坚定地致力于为儿童提供免疫服务。截至2007年底,所有孩子都可通过国家扩大免疫规划(EPI)接种可预防12种疾病的疫苗。这些疫苗是免费的。另有预防其他3种疾病的疫苗对某些高危人群是免费的。扩大免疫规划的疫苗均为国产。

    中国还努力提高国产疫苗的安全性和质量。目前,国际市场已表示出对中国生产的乙脑及H1N1疫苗的兴趣。世卫组织和中国当局正在合作,以便在不久的将来,联合国机构可以从中国购买疫苗。

    同所有药物一样,接种疫苗也可能导致不良反应,尽管不良反应很罕见。当接种人数巨大时,就像在中国这样,某些不良反应是无法避免的。但接种疫苗所带来的好处远远超过其不良反应的弊端。为确保疫苗尽可能的安全,中国同许多国家一样,严密监测不良事件。这使当局能够记录疫苗的安全性,并监测到可能发生的任何异常事件。

    强有力的监管和监督对确保疫苗的有效性和安全性,至关重要;同时我们每个人都有责任,让疫苗给社会带来最大的效益。我们要共同努力,确保每个应接种疫苗的人都能接种疫苗。在全国免疫日和未来的日子里,我们希望媒体也能在提高公众意识方面,发挥作用。

    谢谢。

You and Me Together, Measles Elimination, Hepatitis B Control 

Good morning everyone.

WHO has supported the development of immunization services in many countries around the world since smallpox was successfully eradicated in 1980. 30 years later, large scale use of vaccines has prevented millions of deaths from many diseases worldwide. Two key examples of this success are measles and hepatitis B.  These two diseases are the focus of immunization efforts in WHO's Western Pacific Region because they cause many cases of illness and many deaths, and can be prevented through vaccination.

Vaccines have changed the picture in terms of measles worldwide. People may sometimes think that measles is a relatively mild disease. However, WHO estimates that in 2000, measles caused 733,000 deaths worldwide. Since then, an international initiative has promoted the large scale use of the vaccine, including in campaigns. As a result, by 2008, the number of global measles deaths had decreased to 164,000 (a reduction of 78%). All regions of the world now have measles elimination goals.  

China is strongly committed to eliminating measles. In 2010, a vaccination campaign throughout the country will help China to stop transmission of measles.  This campaign will be the largest ever held in the world, and will target approximately 100 million children.  The decision to conduct this campaign was taken in consultation with WHO and is based on the success of similar national campaigns in other countries.

Hepatitis B is a disease that children get early in life. It damages the liver slowly and leads to severe disease, and potentially death, later in life, during adulthood. Hepatitis B has been one of the major health problems in China. In 1992, the Government started to immunize children in the country on a large scale. As a result, the disease has almost completely disappeared among younger children. These children will be able to grow up healthy, protected from this cause of disease or death. 

China has shown strong commitment to providing immunization services for children.  As of late 2007, all children are eligible to receive vaccines that prevent 12 diseases through the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI).  These vaccines are free of charge.  Vaccines to prevent 3 additional diseases are available free of charge for certain high-risk populations.  All vaccines used in the EPI are manufactured in China.

China has also made many efforts to increase the safety and the quality of its vaccines. Today, the international market expresses interest in a number of vaccines produced in China, including Japanese Encephalitis and H1N1 vaccine. WHO and Chinese authorities are collaborating so that in the near future, United Nations agencies could be in a position to purchase vaccine from China. 

As with all medications, use of vaccines can lead to adverse events, although serious events are extremely rare.  However, when an enormous number of individuals is vaccinated – as happens in China – some side effects are unavoidable.  Nonetheless, the benefit provided by the use of vaccines far outweighs the burden of side effects. To ensure the highest safety profile possible, China, like many countries, monitors adverse events carefully. This allows the authorities to document the safety of the vaccines used and detect any unusual event that might occur. 

While strong regulation and supervision are crucial to ensure the efficacy and safety of vaccines, we all have a role to play for vaccines to benefit society as much as possible. We need to work together to ensure that everyone who is recommended for vaccination actually receives it, and we hope that the media can help to raise public awareness of this need on National Immunization Day and beyond.

Thank you.

世卫组织积极倡导中国儿童接种麻疹、乙肝疫苗 
      卫生部 世界卫生组织 联合新闻发布会背景材料之六 

    中华人民共和国,北京—世界卫生组织今天大力倡导中国家长,通过分别接种麻疹和乙肝疫苗来避免孩子过早死亡和罹患慢性肝病。

    在4月25日的“全国预防接种宣传日”到来之前,世卫组织星期四与卫生部联合举办了新闻发布会,并做出了这一呼吁。今年的主题是“消除麻疹,控制乙肝,你我共参与”。

    尽管有安全、实惠、有效的疫苗,麻疹仍是造成全球婴幼儿死亡的主要原因之一。世卫组织估计,2000年,这种具有高度传染性的病毒性疾病造成全球73.3万人死亡。2000至2008年间,通过接种麻疹疫苗,全世界的麻疹相关死亡下降了78%。 

    “中国坚定地致力于消除麻疹工作”,世卫组织驻华代表处扩大免疫规划(EPI)组组长Lisa Cairns博士说。“2010年的全国性接种活动将帮助中国阻断麻疹的传播。开展这次活动的决定是与世卫组织磋商后、借鉴了其他国家的成功经验后做出的。”

    乙肝是另一种儿童幼时感染的病毒性疾病。乙肝通过接触感染者的血液或其他体液而传播;它让肝脏慢慢受到损害,导致严重疾病,并可能在成年时造成死亡。中国自1992年以来开展了大规模的免疫活动,使得该病在较小的孩子中几乎完全消失。 

    关于中国扩大免疫规划的总体情况,Cairns博士赞扬了中国免费向所有儿童提供预防12种疾病的疫苗。预防另外3种疾病的疫苗对某些高危人群是免费的。 

    “中国还努力提高国产疫苗的安全性和质量”。她还补充说,同所有药物一样,接种疫苗也可能偶然导致不良反应。对不良反应开展强有力的监管和监督,对记录疫苗的安全性和发现可能发生的任何异常事件,至关重要。

    Cairns博士最后说,“接种疫苗所带来的好处远远超过其不良反应的弊端”;她呼吁每个人都采纳相关的免疫接种建议,以便使疫苗为社会带来最大的效益。
 
WHO urges China's children to vaccinate against measles, hepatitis B
 
BEIJING, People's Republic of China – The World Health Organization today urged Chinese parents to protect their children against early death and long-term liver problems by taking up measles and hepatitis B vaccination respectively.

The appeal was made at a joint press briefing with the Ministry of Health on Thursday, ahead of China's National Immunization Day on 25 April. This year's theme is, "You and Me Together – Measles Elimination and Hepatitis B Control".

Globally, measles is a leading cause of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine exists. WHO estimates that the highly contagious viral disease caused 733,000 deaths worldwide in 2000. Between 2000 and 2008, measles vaccination resulted in a 78% decline in measles-related deaths around the world. 

"China is strongly committed to eliminating measles," said Dr Lisa Cairns, who heads the Expanded Programme for Immunization (EPI) team at WHO China. "In 2010, a vaccination campaign throughout the country will help China to stop transmission of measles. The decision to conduct this campaign was taken in consultation with WHO and is based on the success of similar national campaigns in other countries."

Hepatitis B is another viral infection that children can get early in life. Transmitted through contact with the blood or other bodily fluids of an infected person, it damages the liver slowly and leads to severe disease and potentially death in adulthood. In China, large-scale immunization since 1992 has caused the disease to almost disappear among younger children. 

Looking at China's Expanded Immunization Programme as a whole, Dr Cairns commended the provision of free vaccines to all children to prevent 12 diseases. Vaccines against three other diseases are available free of charge for certain high-risk groups. 

"China has also made many efforts to increase the safety and quality of its vaccines," she said, adding that as with all medications, use of vaccines can lead to adverse events on very rare occasions. Strong regulation and monitoring of adverse events are important to document the safety of vaccines and detect any unusual event that might occur.

Dr Cairns concluded, "The benefit provided by the use of vaccines far outweighs the burden of these adverse events," and called for everyone to heed vaccination recommendations in order for vaccines to benefit public health as much as possible.

Tags:卫生部,预防,乙肝疫苗,接种,控制,参与  
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